Here is a critical and historical overview of unconventional and aesthetically challenging films, all of feature length. The author focuses on the particular forms of contemporary avant-garde films, which often rely on characteristics associated with historical films of the same genre. Included are works by such visionary filmmakers as David Lynch, Luis Bunuel, Jean Cocteau, Jean-Luc Godard, Guy Maddin and Derek Jarman. The first of the two appendices contains a filmography of key avant-garde feature films, from Haxan: Witchcraft Through the Ages (1922) to Maximum Shame (2010). The second appendix offers a brief list of directors who have made significant contributions to films that take alternative approaches to cinematic practice, establishing new grounds for analysis and evaluation.