5 September 1928, Frankfurt-Am-Main, Germany, d. 25 July 2005, Frankfurt-Am-Main, Germany. From a musical family, Mangelsdorff and his brother, saxophonist Emil, learned about jazz from secret meetings of the Frankfurt Hot Club since the music was banned by the Nazis. He has subsequently become one of the most important and distinctive European jazz players. After playing violin and dance band guitar, Mangelsdorff took up the trombone at the age of 20 and extended its range with the use of multiphonics (playing more than one note at a time) through his technique of humming and growling while playing, so that the brass-generated note is augmented by the vocal sound. He won awards in Germany in 1954, and in 1958 gained attention in the USA as a member of the Newport International Band. In 1962, he recorded with John Lewis, and two years later toured Asia with his own band. It was during this period that Mangelsdorff began to move towards free jazz. He joined the...