Frances Ethel Gumm, 10 June 1922, Grand Rapids, Minnesota, USA, d. 22 June 1969, Chelsea, London, England. The Gumms were a theatrical family. Parents Frank and Ethel had appeared in vaudeville as Jack and Virginia Lee, and later, with the addition of their first two daughters, Mary Jane and Virginia, they appeared locally as The Four Gumms. Baby Frances joined the troupe when she was just over two years of age, and it was quickly apparent that with her arrival, even at that early age, the Gumm family had outgrown their locale. The family moved to Los Angeles, where all three girls were enrolled in a dance school. When Frank Gumm bought a run-down theatre in Lancaster, a desert town north of Los Angeles, the family moved again. Domestic problems beset the Gumm family throughout this period and Frances life was further disrupted by Ethel Gumms determined belief in her youngest daughters showbusiness potential. The act had become the Gumm Sisters, although Baby Frances was clearly the one audiences wanted to see and hear. In 1933 Ethel Gumm returned to Los Angeles, taking the girls with her. Frances was again enrolled in a theatrical school.
A visit to Chicago was an important step for the girls, with the youngest once more attracting the most attention; here too, at the urging of comedian George Jessell, they changed their name to the Garland Sisters. On their return to Los Angeles in 1934 the sisters played a successful engagement at Graumans Chinese Theater in Hollywood. Soon afterwards, Frances was personally auditioned by Louis B. Mayer, head of MGM. Deeply impressed by what he saw and heard, Mayer signed the girl before she had even taken a screen test. With another adjustment to her name, Frances became Judy Garland. She made her first notable film appearance in Every Sunday (1936), a short musical film that also featured Deanna Durbin. Her first major impact on audiences came with her third film, The Broadway Melody Of 1938, in which she sang Dear Mr Gable (to a photograph of Clark Gable), segueing into You Made Me Love You. She was then teamed with MGMs established child star Mickey Rooney, a partnership that brought a succession of popular films in the Andy Hardy series. By now, everyone at MGM knew that they had a star on their hands. This fact was triumphantly confirmed with her appearance in The Wizard Of Oz (1939), in which she sang Over The Rainbow, the song with which she would subsequently always be associated. Unfortunately, this period of frenzied activity came at a time when she was still developing physically.
Like many young teenagers, Garland tended to put on weight, which was something film makers could not tolerate. Undoubtedly, they did not want a podgy celebrity, and continuity considerations could not allow their star to change appearance during the course of the film. Regardless of the reason, she was prescribed some drugs for weight control, others to ensure she was bright and perky for the long hours of shooting, and still more to bring her down at the end of the day so that she could sleep. This was long before the side effects of amphetamines (which she took to suppress her appetite) were understood, and no one at the time was aware that the pills she was consuming in such huge quantities were highly addictive. Added to the growing girls problems were emotional difficulties that had begun during her parents stormy relationship and were exacerbated by the pressures of her new life. In 1941, against the wishes and advice of her mother and the studio, she married David Rose and soon afterwards became pregnant, but was persuaded by her mother and Mayer to have an abortion. With her personal life already on a downward spiral, Garlands successful film career conversely took a further upswing. In 1942 she appeared in For Me And My Gal, then madePresenting Lily Mars, Thousands Cheer, Girl Crazy (all 1943), Meet Me In St. Louis (1944), The Harvey Girls, Ziegfeld Follies and Till The Clouds Roll By (all 1946). Garlands popularity extended beyond films into radio and records, but her private life was still in disarray.
In 1945 Garland divorced Rose and married Vincente Minnelli, who had directed her inMeet Me In St. Louis. In 1946 her daughter, Liza Minnelli, was born. The late 40s brought more film successes with The Pirate, Easter Parade, Words And Music (all 1948) andIn The Good Old Summertime (1949). Although Garlands career appeared to be in splendid shape, in 1950 her private life was fast deteriorating. Pills, alcohol and severe emotional disturbances led to her failing to appear before the cameras on several occasions and resulted in the ending of her contract with MGM. In 1951 her marriage to Minnelli also dissolved and she attempted suicide. Her subsequent marriage to Sid Luft and his handling of her career brought an upturn both emotionally and professionally. She made a trip to Europe, appearing at the London Palladium to great acclaim. On her return to the USA she played the Palace Theater in New York for a hugely successful 19-week run. Her film career resumed with a dramatic/singing role in A Star Is Born (1954), for which she was nominated for an Oscar. By the late 50s, her problems had returned, and in some cases, had worsened. She suffered nervous and emotional breakdowns, and made further suicide attempts. A straight dramatic role in Judgement At Nuremberg (1961), for which she was again nominated for an Oscar, enhanced her reputation. However, her marriage was in trouble, although she and Luft made repeated attempts to hold it together (they had two children, Lorna and Joey).
Despite the personal traumas and the professional ups and downs, Garland achieved another huge success with a personal appearance at New Yorks Carnegie Hall on 23 April 1961, the subsequent album of the concert winning five Grammy Awards. A 1963 television series was disappointing and, despite another good film performance in a dramatic role inA Child Is Waiting, and a fair dramatic/singing appearance in I Could Go On Singing (both 1963), her career remained plagued with inconsistencies. The marriage with Luft ended in divorce, as did a subsequent marriage. Remarried again in 1969, Garland attempted a comeback in a season at Londons Talk Of The Town nightclub, but suffered the indignity of having bread sticks and other objects thrown at her when she turned up late for some performances. On 22 June 1969 she was found dead, apparently from an accidental overdose of sleeping pills.
Garland was at her best in such films asMeet Me In St. Louis andThe Wizard Of Oz and on stage for the superb Carnegie Hall concert, and had she done nothing else, she would have earned a substantial reputation as a major singing star. To her powerful singing voice she added great emotional depths, which came not only through artifice but from the often cruel reality of her life. When the catalogue of personal tragedies was added to Garlands performing talent she became something else, a cult figure, and a showbusiness legend. She was a figure that only Hollywood could have created and yet, had she been a character in a melodrama, no one would have believed such a life was possible.
Source: The Encyclopedia of Popular Music by Colin Larkin. Licensed from Muze.