Ernest Dale Tubb, 9 February 1914, near Crisp, Ellis County, Texas, USA, d. 6 September 1984, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Ernest was the youngest of five children of Calvin Tubb, the foreman of a 300-acre cotton farm, and his wife Sarah. In 1920 the family relocated to Benjamin, and then moved again, to Kemp, in 1925. The following year, his parents divorced and initially he stayed with his mother when she moved to her brothers farm near Lively. His mother, a very religious woman who was one-quarter Cherokee, played the piano and organ and sang hymns around the farms and at the local church. Ernests education suffered and he later related that he only went to school when he could not find work. In 1928 he heard a recording of Jimmie Rodgers singing one of his blue yodels. He was immediately fascinated and quickly decided that he wanted to be a singer; he began to learn Rodgers songs and whenever he had the money, he bought his records.
In 1930 after his mother remarried, he travelled around, working on various tasks and living at different times with married siblings or his remarried father. Early in 1933, while working on the roads near Benjamin, he became friendly with a young guitarist called Merwyn Buff Buffington, who liked Tubbs singing but suggested he should learn to play guitar. He bought his first guitar from a pawnshop in Abilene and Buffington taught him his first chords. In May 1933 Tubb was greatly distressed by the death of Rodgers, although the event served to strengthen his resolve to emulate his idol. He moved to San Antonio, where he lived with his brother Calvin Jnr. He also renewed his acquaintance with Buffington, who at the time was playing guitar with the Castleman Brothers (Joe and Jim) on Radio KONO. He persuaded Tubb to make some appearances as guest vocalist with them, which led to him being offered his own twice-weekly early morning show. On 26 May 1934 he married Lois Elaine Cook (b. 1916, d. 2 November 2001). Still very much the Rodgers imitator, he decided to contact Jimmie Rodgers widow; Carrie Rodgers was impressed with Tubb and not only gave him a picture, but also showed him many of her late husbands possessions and agreed to listen to his radio show. She also offered to help him with his career, and in 1936 she loaned him one of Jimmies C.F. Martin guitars.
In October of that year, mainly owing to her influence with her late husbands label, Tubb made his first recordings for RCA Records (she later gave him the guitar, which, after using it for many years, Tubb eventually donated to the Country Music Hall Of Fame Museum). The first two of the six songs recorded were tribute songs written by Elsie McWilliams, Rodgers sister-in-law; the others were self-penned numbers. RCA released the first two but sales were poor. A further session in March 1937 saw another single released but again sales were poor. These two singles are so scarce that they represent the most collectable recordings of Tubbs entire career (the other RCA tracks were not released until 1942, by which time Tubb was a known artist). He played countless small venues and appeared on various radio stations as he struggled to keep his family, which by now comprised Justin (b. 1935) and Violet Elaine (b. 1939). (His son Roger Dale (b. 1938) had died in a car crash when only seven weeks old.)
In spite of Carrie Rodgers help, it was not until April 1940 that Tubb recorded again, this time for Decca Records. By now his style and sound had changed, owing to the fact that late in 1939 his tonsils had been removed, taking with them his ability to yodel. This effectively stopped him being a Rodgers clone and he began to develop his own identity (in later years, he recalled the event with his song He Took 50 Dollars And My Yodel, When He Took My Tonsils Out). Decca were impressed enough to record further sessions. He was sponsored by a flour company and began touring and appearing on KGKO Fort Worth as the Gold Chain Troubadour. Tubb continued to write songs and in April 1941, this time using a backing that included the electric guitar of KGKOs staff guitarist Fay Smitty Smith, he recorded six more numbers. After some argument with Decca over which song to release first, Tubbs choice of Walking The Floor Over You was accepted. In the first year it sold 400, 000 copies and went on to become a million-selling record and Tubbs greatest hit. In 1941 he sang it and three more songs in the Charles Starrett filmFighting Buckeroos, and in 1942 he appeared with Starrett again inRidin West.
That same year, his popularity secured him a release from his Gold Chain contract and he moved to Nashville. By January 1943 the Grand Ole Opry had a new honky-tonk singer who dared to use an electric lead guitar on that sacred stage. When a union strike stopped recordings in 1942 and 1943, he toured extensively on various shows, including tours with Pee Wee King, but he was soon fronting his own band, the Texas Troubadours. In 1944 he appeared in the filmJamboree and the same year, making his first recordings with his own band, he gained his first US country chart number 1 and a pop chart number 16 with Soldiers Last Letter. In February 1946 he was probably only the second modern country artist ever to record in Nashville, Decca having recorded Red Foley the previous year. In 1947, he opened the now world-famous Ernest Tubb Record Shop in Nashville and started hisMidnight Jamboree, initially on theOpry, but before long the show was being broadcast direct from the actual record shop itself. He also headlined the first ever country music show held in New Yorks Carnegie Hall, telling the audience: This place could sure hold a lot of hay. He continued to tour and record and by the end of 1948 he had amassed 16 country Top 5s, including two more number 1s with Its Been So Long, Darling and Rainbow At Midnight, and four songs had made the pop charts. His popularity was increased even further in 1949, when he tallied 12 chart entries (11 Top 10 hits) including number 1 hits with Slippin Around and Blue Christmas, and duet hits with Red Foley (Tennessee Border No. 2) and the Andrews Sisters (Im Biting My Fingernails And Thinking Of You). Bing Crosby even asked to record with him but the session never materialized (Bing did record Walking The Floor Over You and in 1960 it also became a UK pop hit for Pat Boone).
In 1948 Tubbs first marriage ended in divorce but in June 1949, he married Olene Adams Carter (this marriage lasted 26 years and produced five children). Tubb was always ready to offer a helping hand and in 1950 he helped fellow Rodgers admirer Hank Snow to appear on the Grand Ole Opry. He had befriended Hank Williams when he first broke into country music and in 1953, he sang Beyond The Sunset at Williams funeral. During the 50s he maintained a rigorous touring and recording schedule. By the end of the decade, although only achieving one number 1 with his duet with Red Foley of Goodnight, Irene, he totalled 34 hits, the majority being Top 10s. Major hits included I Love You Because, Driftwood On The River and Missing In Action. In 1953 he and Hank Snow, Danny Dill and Lew Childre were the first country acts to tour a live war zone when they played about 40 shows in Korea, many in the open air and within range of enemy guns. Tubb had been advised not to go - on his return his health suffered and for a time he was unable to perform. By the mid-50s, his eldest son Justin Tubb, then establishing himself as an artist and songwriter, became involved with the business organization.
The hits slowed in the 60s but Tubbs popularity did not, and in spite of his health problems, he kept up a rigorous touring schedule and hosted his network television show. His hits at this time included Thanks A Lot, Pass The Booze, his nostalgic Waltz Across Texas and a duet with Loretta Lynn titled Mr. & Mrs. Used To Be. In 1965, in recognition of his important contribution to the music, he became the sixth member of the Country Music Hall Of Fame. The many songs that he had written and successfully recorded also led to him being one of the first writers elected to the Nashville Songwriters International Hall Of Fame when it was founded in 1970. During the 70s he played the Grand Ole Opry, hosted theMidnight Jamboree and in spite of the worsening effects of the emphysema that had first developed in 1965, he still kept up a touring schedule that would have taxed younger men.
He finally parted company with Decca and in 1979, to mark his 65th birthday, Pete Drake masterminded a tribute on First Generation Records calledThe Legend And The Legacy, on which various stars overdubbed vocal contributions on Tubbs recordings (Tubb was not informed until the project was completed). The album became a bestseller and singles of a Tubb and Willie Nelson duet of Waltz Across Texas and a joint Merle Haggard, Chet Atkins, Charlie Daniels and Tubb version of Walking The Floor Over You both charted. It was initially released as a double album but ran foul of various claims of conflicting contractual details or unauthorized performances. It was subsequently withdrawn and copies supposedly destroyed. Record One of the original issue soon reappeared as a single album on Cachet, minus only a single track - the Nelson/Tubb duet. By 1982 his failing health forced him to retire. In the last year of touring, he had to rest on his bed in his customized touring bus and take oxygen between and during shows (ironically similar to the latter days of the career of his idol, Jimmie Rodgers, almost 50 years earlier). He made one of his last recordings in 1982, when he spoke a line on the Waylon Jennings and Hank Williams Jnr. song Leave Them Boys Alone.
Ernest Tubb died in September 1984 of emphysema and related complications in Nashvilles Baptist Hospital. He was buried on 10 September in Nashvilles Hermitage Memorial Gardens. Over the years the Texas Troubadours included some of country musics finest musicians, such as Jimmie Short, Leon Rhodes, Billy Byrd, Jerry Byrd and Red Herron. Two others, Jack Greene and Cal Smith, went on to successful solo careers. Ernest Tubb registered in total 91 country chart hits, of which only 17 failed to reach the Top 20. His distinctive growling vocals, in a voice that deepened but softened as the years went by, usually began somewhat off-key, and by some unique means, he managed to use this flatness to emphasize and convey the songs, whether they were happy or sad. After starting out as a blatant imitator, no one could deny that he became a completely original and unique artist.
Source: The Encyclopedia of Popular Music by Colin Larkin. Licensed from Muze.